quinta-feira, junho 19, 2008

Manchester Summer School - KNH Centre and The Manchester Museum

An opportunity to learn more about Egyptology and the work done in Manchester that contributes to scientific knowledge and the correction of some old theories...

First two days at Ellen Wilkinson Building room A2.7 - Monday, Tuesday
Third day at the KNH Centre, at The Mill - Wednesday
Last two days at the Museum - Thursday, Friday

Monday 23rd June 2008
Current Work at the KNH Centre (1)

All lectures will be held in lecture room A2.7 in the Ellen Wilkinson Building.
The Ellen Wilkinson Building is Campus Map Building 77
Check out the campus map (PDF for download):

9.30-10.30am: Registration, coffee and welcome to the course - room C1.51

10.30am-12.30pm: Session 1
1.1 Angela Thomas, The Ancient Tissue Bank in Manchester
1.2 Mervyn Harris, Accidental and deliberate trauma in ancient Nubia
1.3 Jacky Finch, Walk like an Egyptian- the challenges of experimental
archaeology PART 1

12.30-1.30: Lunch

1.30-4.00pm: Session 2
2.1 Jacky Finch, Walk like an Egyptian- PART 2
2.2 Conni Lord, How now, sick cow: an investigation into the health,
disease and care of ancient Egyptian cattle
2.3 Jude Seath, Archaeological chemistry and its applications to
2.4 Jackie Campbell, Pharmacy practise in ancient Egypt and its legacy to
the history of medicine

4.10-5.00pm: Session 3
Professor Rosalie David, The Work of the KNH Centre
Followed by drinks reception in C1.51

Tuesday 24th June 2008
Current Work at the KNH Centre (2)

9.30am-12.30pm: Session 4
4.1 Roger Forshaw, Ancient Egyptian Dentistry
4.2 Vicky Gashe, Death in the Predynastic
4.3 Roger Forshaw, Ancient Nubian life-style implications from an investigation of the skulls of the Manchester Elliot Smith Collection

4.4 Natalie McCreesh, From a Single Strand: Scientific analyses of ancient human hair

4.5 Jenny Cockitt, Contemplating climate change - the role of environmental stress in the collapse of the Old Kingdom

12.30-1.30: Lunch

1.30 – 4.30pm: Session 5
5.1 Paula Veiga, The Conservation of Human Remains and their retrieval for Sampling; how we deal with human bodies for research.

5.2 Angelique Corthals, DNA and the study of ancient Egyptian MummiesTea
5.3 John Denton


Session 6: 5.15 – 6.00
Joyce Tyldesley, Egyptology in the North West

Wednesday 25th June 2008
Meet at 10.30 am in the reception area of the KNH Centre for Biomedical Egyptology for an informal tour of the labs.

Please try to be prompt as you may not be able to find us once the tour has started!

The KNH Centre is situated at the other University campus, near Piccadilly. It is approximately a 20 minutes walk from the Museum, or catch the 147 bus along Oxford Road from outside the Student Union, stay on as it turns right past the BBC and get off at “The Gatehouse” which will be on the right. Walk on to the camp[us, and look for “The Mill”.
Jackson's Mill,Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD

Thursday 26th June 2008
Magic and Religion in ancient Egypt
Karen Exell, Curator of Egypt and the Sudan

Registration and all lectures to be held in the Kanaris Lecture Theatre, The Manchester Museum, Oxford Road.
The lecture theatre is accessed via the coin gallery. Please ask at Museum reception for directions.

9.30-10am: Registration (for new students)
10.00-11.00am: Lecture, State and popular religion in ancient Egypt
11.00-11.30am: Coffee break
11.30am-12.30pm: Lecture, Magical practice in ancient Egypt
12.30-1.30pm: Lunch break
1.30-3.00pm: Handling session, religious and magical artefacts
3.00-3.30pm Tea break
3.30-4.15pm: Gallery session with questionnaires/activity
4.15-4.45 pm: Questionnaire/activity response and final discussion

FRIDAY 27th June 2008
Daily Life in ancient Egypt
Joyce Tyldesley, Manchester Museum Egyptology MAJA

9.30-10am: Registration (for new students)
10.00-11.00am: Lecture, Daily Life in ancient Egypt (1): the family
11.00-11.30am: Coffee break
11.30am-12.30pm: Lecture, Daily Life in ancient Egypt (2): houses and households

12.30-1.30pm: Lunch break

1.30-3.30pm: Gallery talk, Natalie McCreesh: Science on the gallery: how scientific analysis has enhanced our knowledge of items currently on display

Followed by
Handling session: Organic remains and the evidence from Kahun
3.30-4.30pm: Tea and informal question and answer session.

1.1 Angela Thomas
The Ancient Tissue Bank in Manchester
A collection of ancient tissue and bone samples was started in Manchester in the 1990s as a resource for research and with a view to acquiring relevant material from outside Egypt. In connection with the collection, ethical issues must be considered and the nature and procedures of any research and how this can add to our knowledge of the Ancient Egyptian population and contribute to an understanding of the history of health and disease.

1.2 Mervyn Harris
Accidental and Deliberate Trauma in Ancient NubiaThe presentation will show numerous examples of deliberate and accidental trauma and will seek to explain the causes of the trauma observed whilst at the same time, indicating any evidence of treatment carried out.
1.3: Jacky Finch
Walk like an Egyptian- the challenges of experimental archaeology PART 1
The Greville Chester Great Toe, EA 29996, is on display in the British Museum. This magnificent example of the art of cartonnage in the form of a false big toe appears to show signs of wear and thus poses the following questions `Is this more than a beautifully crafted example of an embalmer's attempt to restore the body of the deceased? Could it be considered a pre mortem example of a cosmetic or even functional prosthesis?'
Part 1 will focus on examining this piece for clues as to its provenance, composition and significance.

2.1 Jacky Finch
Walk like an Egyptian- the challenges of experimental archaeology PART 2
Part 2 will show how experimental archaeology is trying to answer the second question regarding functionality. The processes involved in the construction and testing of a replica will be explained and demonstrated.

2.2 Conni Lord
How Now, Sick Cow: An Investigation into the health, disease and care of ancient Egyptian cattle
The advancement of knowledge regarding human disease in ancient Egypt, and the treatment thereof, is evident from the numerous current studies on this subject. What has not been explored in any depth is the health and disease of the animals from this time and in turn, the possibility of veterinary intervention. The field of veterinary medicine especially is a little researched area of the ancient Egyptian medical knowledge. The reasons for this are easy to understand as the only compelling evidence for the concept comes from the Veterinary Papyrus of Kahun, which has largely been ignored by Egyptologists probably due to the extreme fragmentation of the original document. All that remains comprehensible is one main segment outlining three treatments for ailing bovines. By focusing on these three treatments we can see that the ancient Egyptian ‘vet’ follows a logical and scientific order like that of the Edwin Smith medical papyrus. The veterinary papyrus also demonstrates techniques of treatments that modern vets can relate to today.

Using the importance and treatment of cattle in ancient Egypt as a case study, this presentation will examine the evidence available that supports the premise of veterinary care in pharaonic times, including an analysis of the Veterinary Papyrus of Kahun. For the sake of comparison, evidence of veterinary care from cultures of comparative times will be briefly considered. The problems faced in connection with this kind of research will be discussed as well as the direction future work could take.

2.3 Jude Seath
Archaeological Chemistry and its Applications to Egyptology
The presentation will focus upon analytical techniques that have been applied by the Egyptology Dept analysing organic remains. An overview of the preservation of materials and the techniques themselves and their application, using examples of published or ongoing research from the KNH Centre. The techniques will include Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

2.4 Jackie Campbell
Pharmacy Practise in Ancient Egypt and its Legacy to the History of Medicine
The lecture will describe the practise of pharmacy in ancient Egypt c. 1500 BC and the forensic methods used to evaluate the discipline.

Archaeobotany was used to identify the medicinal plants available at the time of the papyri, whilst phytogeography indicted sources of supply. The therapeutic efficacy of remedies was evaluated by comparing ancient remedies with pharmaceutical protocols prevalent in the mid 20th century AD.

This approach combining, analytical, historical, pharmacological and botanical techniques has indicated that the ancient Egyptians not only practised a credible, reproducible form of pharmacy long before Hippocrates but that it was of such significance it was important enough to record. Moreover, the view that the remedies of ancient Egypt were largely magical and without pharmaceutical merit, is dispelled.

4.1 Roger Forshaw
Ancient Egyptian Dentistry
This presentation studies the dental problems facing the ancient Egyptians, and considers the causes of these problems. Was there a dedicated dental profession in ancient Egypt? If there was, what exactly was their role - were they operative dental surgeons as we know them today or did they merely prescribe pharmaceutical remedies? The evidence for the existence of a dental profession from the ancient authors; the hieroglyphic inscriptions; the skeletal and mummified remains; the medical papyri, and ancient surgical instruments is examined.

4.2 Vicky Gashe
Death in the Predynastic
It is becoming clear that the Predynastic Period was a time of experimentation when it came to dealing with the dead – the earliest attempts at mummification date to this period. The evidence for this practice, along with the practices of dismemberment, cannibalism and ritual sacrifice will be discussed – practices which at first seem to go against our idea that the Egyptians wanted, above all, to preserve the corpse intact.

The development of cemeteries, the funeral process, the provision of goods for the deceased, and funerary ritual at the graveside will also be covered in this talk. A closer look at two particular Predynastic sites – Badari and Armant – will allow us to see how practices differed even within a particular community, and show the diversity of attitudes towards the dead at this early stage of Egyptian history.

4.3 Roger Forshaw
Ancient Nubian Life-style Implications from an Investigation of the Skulls of the Manchester Elliot Smith Collection
A multidisciplinary investigation into the skulls of the unprovenanced Manchester Elliot Smith Skeletal Collection has been able to determine considerable information concerning the life-style of the ancient Nubians. The presentation discusses how visual, metric, photographic, radiographic & various analytical techniques can be utilised in order to ascertain age, sex and ethnicity. Also how research into the disease processes and dental conditions has furnished data about health status and environmental conditions, whilst an analysis of residues associated with the skulls has provided some indication of the composition of ancient materials.

4.4 Natalie McCreesh
From a Single Strand: scientific analyses of ancient human hair.
In ancient Egypt the corpse was prepared for the afterlife using practical methods of preservation, yet was also ceremoniously anointed for religious beliefs. The treatment of the hair in this context was studied using microscopy and mass spectrometry. Ancient Egyptian hair samples were utilised to investigate if the hair was cut or dyed and, if any such treatment had been applied, was it pre- or post- mortem.

Distinguishing peri- and post-mortem treatments is of high significance as this indicates if the hair was cut, curled and / or dyed during life, or only treated in such a way at death. It is also important to determine the effects of any embalming materials upon the hair, such as staining, oxidisation, and preservation. Analyses of the hair can also provide insight into the background of the individual. For example, a female noble woman and a male priest, having different social identities, may have had differing treatments applied to the hair in life and in death. The health of the individual may also be reflected in the hair quality. Through analysis of a single hair; species, race, and health are just a few aspects of what can be established about an individual. With the addition of information regarding how the hair was treated in life and death, an in-depth picture of an individual can be created.

4.5 Jenny Cockitt
Contemplating Climate Change: the role of environmental stress in the collapse of the Old Kingdom
The cause of the collapse of the Old Kingdom has been discussed and debated in great detail over the years by Egyptologists. It is now widely accepted that there was not one cause, but instead several factors combined producing a cumulative effect. Here, one of these factors - environmental change - will be examined in detail. The evidence for environmental stress in the period leading up to the end of the Old Kingdom will be discussed. Attention will also be drawn to the impact this may have had upon the other factors more frequently cited as the root of societal collapse. It is the intention of this paper to try and demonstrate that Old Kingdom Egypt was one of the earliest examples where environmental stress can be seen to exploit the inherent flaws in a society, resulting in its collapse.

5.1: Paula Veiga
The Conservation of Human Remains and their Retrieval for Sampling: how we deal with human bodies for research.The deterioration of human remains starts prior to the excavation at the burial site; it is necessary to follow forensic osteological procedures whether they are skeletized or mummified. In the museum environment the display or storage at inadequate humidity level/air movement, light, the existence of fungal spores or other deterioration conditions can damage the bodies beyond restoration and that excludes the possibility of future sample retrieval. The example of tropical environments and the conservation of human remains - The Brazilian case. There are also possibilities of damage by careless excavation procedures at the site, the mishandling of the artefacts or rodent attack. Some inept conservation attempts also damage the mummies and skeletons since every body is an archive of information that has to be preserved as so, as little as possible should be put inside a mummy, and a record of all steps must be made and updated. Where Conservation meets Histology.

The natural processes of soft tissue preservation. Human Taphonomy - varying burial conditions influence soft tissue preservation. DNA e-voucher: a digital representation of a specimen; museums should be at the forefront of preserving molecular information. Repairing, cleaning and displaying mummies, handling mummies: we should never forget that we are dealing with human bodies and, although they are ancient, they all were the envelope of somebody's soul one day...Human bodies are an excellent source of information, both medical and cultural, we can have an idea of how ancient peoples lived, ate and socially interacted just by studying their physical remains.
5.2 Angelique Corthals
DNA and the Study of Ancient Egyptian MummiesAlthough a relatively new field, the application of scientific methods to Egyptology is providing a great deal of new information about the Ancient Egyptian people as well as supporting and, in some cases disproving, established theories. This ecture will provide an introduction to some aspects of this fascinating area, including a special on the recent research on the Royal Mummies and the discovery of Hatshepsut.

6. Joyce Tyldesley
Egyptology in the North West
The North West is home some of the best Egyptology collections outside London. This lecture will consider the development of Egyptology, and the history the collections in Liverpool, Macclesfield and Bolton; all easily accessible from Manchester.

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